Read e-book online American Biodefense: How Dangerous Ideas about Biological PDF

By Frank L. Smith III

ISBN-10: 0801452716

ISBN-13: 9780801452710

Biological guns have threatened U.S. nationwide defense for the reason that a minimum of international warfare II. traditionally, besides the fact that, the U.S. army has ignored learn, improvement, acquisition, and doctrine for biodefense. Following September eleven and the anthrax letters of 2001, the USA begun spending billions of greenbacks according to 12 months on clinical countermeasures and organic detection platforms. yet so much of this investment now comes from the dept of healthiness and Human providers instead of the dept of security. Why has the U.S. army missed biodefense and allowed civilian enterprises to take the lead in protecting the rustic opposed to organic assaults? In American Biodefense, Frank L. Smith III addresses this perplexing and principally untold tale approximately technology, know-how, and nationwide security.

Smith argues that organizational frames and stereotypes have brought on either army forget and the increase of civilian biodefense. within the armed providers, influential principles approximately kinetic battle have undermined protection opposed to organic conflict. The impression of those principles on technology and know-how demanding situations the normal knowledge that nationwide protection coverage is pushed by means of threats or bureaucratic pursuits. Given the tips at paintings contained in the U.S. army, Smith explains how the teachings discovered from biodefense may help resolve different very important difficulties that variety from radiation guns to cyber attacks.

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Extra resources for American Biodefense: How Dangerous Ideas about Biological Weapons Shape National Security

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One critique is that the armed services perform several nonkinetic functions. But even here, other aspects of the military’s culture reify and reinforce its dominant frame. 95 It is no surprise that prestige corresponds to the organization’s dominant frame: the difference between working inside versus outside this frame mirrors the distinction between “self” and “other” that often feeds the social construction of identity. But like identity, prestige is an idea. It is not a generic resource like budget or autonomy.

Another important inconsistency seen here is the association between biological weapons and chemical warfare. This is a socially constructed relationship between very different threats, and it illustrates how the military understood—or more accurately, misunderstood—BW at an early stage. There is little if any evidence to suggest that the military tried to solve the novel problem of biological weapons by searching for new solutions; from the beginning, they were simply assumed to be like chemical weapons.

80 For Legro, organizational culture explains why accidents involving submarine warfare and strategic bombing escalated into intentional use during World War II, despite taboos against them, while similar accidents involving chemical weapons were not considered cause for retaliation in kind. He argues that submarine warfare and strategic bombing were compatible with military cultures in Germany and Britain whereas chemical warfare was not. 81 While many cultural accounts are compatible with organizational frame theory, culture is a broader concept that includes multiple frames and stereotypes, as well as other aspects of identity, norms, and values.

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American Biodefense: How Dangerous Ideas about Biological Weapons Shape National Security by Frank L. Smith III

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