Download e-book for kindle: Advances in Genetics, Vol. 21 by E.W. Caspari (Ed.)
By E.W. Caspari (Ed.)
This quantity in a chain on genetics, emphasizes the range of genetic reviews. Articles disguise the filamentous fungus neurospora, biogenesis of yeast ribosomes, evolutionary genetics of fish, drosophila transposable parts and the dropophila gene zeste.
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111. The Various Means by Which Organisms Cope with Environmental Adversity A. RAPIDRESPONSES TO AN ADVERSE ENVIRONMENT If any organism is exposed suddenly to a potentially lethal foreign substance, a rapid response (within minutes, hours, or days) of some “defense system” is needed to ensure survival (Nebert, 1979). Specific examples of such rapid responses to new environmental dangers are listed in Table 3. NEBERT et al. TABLE 3 Examples of Rapid Responses of Organisms in Order to Cope with Sudden Environmental Adversity ~ Example Antibiotic resistance, mercury resistance, among plasmids Phytoalexins and “stress metabolites” among plants Chemical weapons against predation among insects Interferon production among animal cells Resistance to heavy metals by metallothionein induction in many mammalian tissues Development of tolerance to the mushroom poison phalloidin Adaptability of cultured cells to “selective pressures” Actinomycin D resistance Barbiturate resistance Methotrexate resistance Lead resistance Synthesis of major histocompatibility antibodies Synthesis of immunoglobulins, the “immune response” Induction of multiple forms of drug-metabolizing enzymes [Drug dependence of all types; insecticide resistance] Cytochromes P-450 UDP glucuronosyltransferases; other enzymes ~~ References Chakrabarty (1976); Chakrabarty et al.
Jensen, N. , Garcia, G. , and Nebert, D. W. (1981a). Structural gene products of the murine Ah locus. Differences in ontogenesis, membrane location, and glucosamine incorporation between liver microsomal cytochromes P,-450 and P-448 induced by polycyclic aromatic compounds. Eur. J . Biochem. 115, 585-594. , Swan, D. C . , Enquist, L. , and Nebert, D. W. (1981b). Isolation and characterization of a cloned DNA sequence associated with the murine Ah locus and a 3-methylcholanthrene-inducedform of cytochrome P-450.
1980). , 1978). , 1979). The reason for this interesting reciprocal response of the P-450 system, compared with the immune system, when challenged with many types of stimuli, is not yet understood. E. 1 FM), other antigens will still bind but with one to three orders of magnitude poorer affinity. Similarly, one antigen may stimulate principally the synthesis of one specific immunoglobulin (Fig. , 1972; Edelman, 1973; Porter, 1973; Potter, 1977). Whether this lack of a strong “biological damper” is accidental or purposeful is not known.
Advances in Genetics, Vol. 21 by E.W. Caspari (Ed.)