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We know that the rudiments of such a theory was actively developed by the ancient Greeks: the Megarians and the Stoics 20, and Aristotle and the early Peripatetics. 21 The notions of temporalized modality that are at work here are mainly those relating to the "Master Argument" of Diodorus Cronus. 22 There seems to have been a disagreement as to modality between the Stoics and the Megarians. On the Megarian view: (1) The true is that which is actually realized now Tn (p) iff Rn (p) Averroes, In I De Caelo, t.

Here] the judgment is not [strictly] necessary at all - neither at a given time, as with the eclipse, nor under certain circumstances, as with change for that which moves - but it is [actual at some times and not others], as happens with writing for man. (4) Sometimes one understands it [the possible] in yet another sense. In this case one looks to a relation [of the subject to the predicate] which does not belong to the thing at issue at any as yet realized (actualized) stage of its existence, neither by affirmation nor negation.

29 See Guy Jalbert, op. , pp. 41, 119-120, 137-138, 141-143. This work is primarily concerned with possible and necessary existents. For a detailed treatment of such existents, primarily in Avicenna, but with some comparisons and contrasts in St. Thomas, can be found in Gerard Smith, 'Avicenna and the Possibles', The New Scholasticism 17 (1943) 340-357. 30 Summa logicae (ed. P. Boehner), Pt. I, ch. 73, lines 16-49; Pt. II, ch's 7,19-22; Pt. III, div. i, ch's 17-19. 37 NICHOLAS RESCHER cation by Arabic logicians of the middle ages.

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A primer of logic by Henry Bradford Smith


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