Download e-book for iPad: A Modern Formal Logic by Milton Fisk

By Milton Fisk

This booklet was once written for the newbie. It is now not, even though, a survey of
modern formal good judgment, for it does now not attempt to characterize the present opinion of
logicians on the uncomplicated issues with which it offers. In truth, it was
written in the conviction that one other view of those concerns is extra adequate.
The expense paid for this shift is the ensuing lack of basic mechanical tests
for the correctness of rules of the common sense of sentences and of monadic
predicates. The deductive procedure of facts resorted to for constructing these
principles demanding situations ingenuity with out being so tough as to discourage it.

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Readings for Chapter 1 Moody, E. , Truth and Consequence in Mediaeval Logic. , 1953, No. , Semantics and Necessary Truth. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1958, Chap. " Strawson, P. , Introduction to Logical Theory. , 1952, Chap. " Urmson, J. , "Some Questions Concerning Validity," in Essays in Conceptual Analysis, ed. A. Flew. , 1956. 2 The Logic of Sentences §7 Provinces of Logic Formal logic is divided into provinces. ,ertain group of logical principles. The differences between the province~ can be traced back to differences between the logical principles studied in each .

3 Formal and Material Invalidity. An · argument which is not fonnally valid 1nay be either fonnally invalid or 1naterially valid or materially invalid. Sirnilarly, an argument which is not materially valid may be either 1naterially invalid or formally valid or formally invalid. To complete our discussion it ren1ains to define formal and material invalidity: An argument is formally invalid if and only if it belongs to an invalid argument type which can be described completely by a logical form, An argument is materially invalid if and only if it belongs to an invalid argument type but no invalid argument type to which it belongs can be completely described by a logical farm.

P. so q includes that described by: (2) if f x then gx. Jx. so gx, [§5] Truth and Validity 25 which includes that described by: (3) if x runs then x moves. x runs. so x moves. The type described by : (4) if p then q. p. so r includes that described by (1 ), but is nonvalid. The type described by (1) is in fact the most inclusive valid argument type to which any argument exemplifying (1 ), (2); or (3) belongs. In classifying a valid argument for logical treatment, there is no need to bring out more of its structure than is necessary for its validity.

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A Modern Formal Logic by Milton Fisk

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